Early Intervention and Linguistically-Diverse Families

June 12, 2013

BLOG pic (2)Early Intervention, or the process of providing services, education, and support to young children and their families who have been identified as having a developmental delay and/or disorder, was designed to enhance the development of infants and toddlers with disabilities. Designing an early intervention program that is able to identify and meet a child’s individual needs can be challenging for a service provider, especially when providing services to linguistically diverse families. According to the research literature, service providers can do several things to ensure they are providing appropriate services to a linguistically-diverse group.

            Upon meeting a new client and their parents entering an Early Intervention Clinic, the service provider can ask themselves or the parent, “How does this parent’s background influence his or her perspectives about language learning and education for his/her child? What does this parent want for their child? What concerns does this parent have regarding their child, or the program?” By understanding that a unique culture is inherent in each family with which a service provider works with, they will be able to understand and respect how a family identifies itself.

            According to the research, providing parents and families with information regarding how children learn language and the benefits of bilingualism as well as the preservation of home language and culture, benefit the child’s language development. Parents and families also benefit from learning ways to enhance their child’s language and literacy at home, as well as how to navigate the educational system.

            Families have strengths that can serve as the building blocks for effective service, and service providers should foster those strengths in the family and their community.

Sarah Peters, M.A., CCC-SLP

 From the President: Working Early-Intervention Magic in Community Settings, Patty Prelock

 Roles and Responsibilities of Speech-Language Pathologists in Early Intervention: Position Statement, ASHA

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Normal Speech Sound Development

June 4, 2013

One of the most commonly asked questions of a speech-language pathologist is “Are my child’s sound errors normal?”

If your child is unable to say certain sounds or cannot be understood by others, you may want to take them for a speech evaluation.  A speech-language pathologist would be able to answer your questions and determine whether your child’s sound errors are developmental (appropriate errors based on the child’s age) or non-developmental (not age-appropriate and would need intervention).  A speech-language pathologist would evaluate your child and use “speech sound norms” or “sound acquisition norms” to determine which errors are developmentally appropriate and which errors are not.

Results of a speech evaluation may help ease parent’s worries about their child’s intelligibility.  Speech sound norms give useful information about which sounds are typically developed in the first 2-3 years, which ones are not developed until 4-5 years, and which ones may not be fully developed until 6-7 years.  A commonly misproduced sound is /r/.  When setting expectations for their child’s speech, it is important for parents to know that the /r/ sound is not typically mastered by most children until age 5 or 6. Although, some children may master the sound as early as 3 or 4.

Below is a link to a chart that is used by speech-language pathologists as a guideline to help determine which sound errors are appropriate and which are not.  Please don’t hesitate to take your child to be evaluated if you have any concerns.

Speech Sound Chart

 

– Michelle Morgado, M.S. CCC-SLP

 

Information taken from: http://mommyspeechtherapy.com

 


Literacy Series Post 3: Speech Sound Disorders

March 19, 2013

Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processing

A speech sound disorder (SSD) is a broad classification of disorders affecting a child’s (and sometimes adult’s) ability to communicate. Though all children make mistakes when learning new words and sounds, a disorder occurs when the child reaches a certain age and is still making certain mistakes. A speech-language pathologist (SLP) can help treat and possibly cure SSDs. The two main types of SSDs are articulation and phonological disorders.

Articulation Disorders

Articulation disorders are characterized by substitution, distortion, omission or addition of sounds in words. A child with an articulation disorder will have difficulty learning how to physically produce certain sounds. One of the more common articulation problems is the inability for a child to produce the “r” sound. The “r” is often substituted with “w,” like saying “twee,” instead of “tree.” A lisp also is a common articulation distortion.

An SLP can teach a patient new ways to produce sounds (for example, changing the placement of the tongue when making certain sounds). Sounds in different words are practiced in repetition, until they become natural for the speaker.

Phonological Process Disorders

Phonological process disorder is marked by a set pattern of sound errors. A child with a phonological process disorder will have difficulties learning the sound system. He or she may not realize that certain different sounds have different meanings. A common example is replacing the “d” sound with a “g”; saying “dot,” for example, instead of “got.” Children with this disorder may be able to hear the sound distinction in other peoples’ voices, but be unaware when they make the distortion.

An SLP will design a program involving studying and repeating words that differ only by one sound to indicate how different sounds signify different meanings. The suggested exercises will generalize age-appropriate phonological patterns.

In many cases, the reason that speech sound disorders occur is unknown, but recent research has shown that weaknesses in phonological awareness and word reading demonstrated by children with SSDs could be at least partially explained by their difficulties with phonological representation, implicating the brain’s auditory processing system.

Many children outgrow the problem, but those who cannot learn to produce sounds correctly, or do not learn the rules of speech on their own, need intervention.  A speech evaluation by an SLP will help decide if the child if the child will outgrow the problem.  There are many factors which will help decide if a child is in need of therapy.  One important consideration is the child’s degree of unintelligibility and how it restricts him from communicating with his family and peers.  A very verbal child who is difficult to understand can often feel frustrated and may respond by withdrawing from the effort of communication.

At CSLOT, we believe it is critical for our Speech-Language Pathologists (SLPs)to provide interventions that comprehensively integrate training in speech perception, speech production, phonological awareness, phonics, and direct reading instruction.

Your child’s speech therapist will support your child’s auditory processing in the area of phonemic awareness by teaching your child how to play with sounds in words, manipulating and changing them in many ways, while speech therapy will show your child how to produce the speech sounds correctly.

To set up an evaluation for your child, please visit our appointment page.